Researchers from the University of Lincoln have recently published a paper entitled ‘Acculturation — Perceptions of breed differences in behavior of the dog (Canis familiaris)‘, which exposes the fundamental flaws in breed specific legislation and why, as part of the Dangerous Dogs Act, it does little to protect the public.
Their findings, which have been published in the American journal Human Animal Interaction Bulletin, demonstrate that those who receive little interaction with dogs are more likely to adopt a prejudiced view, comparable to racial stereotyping, than their dog-loving neighbours. According to the paper, more than half of those surveyed who identified as ‘experienced or knowledgeable’ about dogs oppose the stereotyping of specific breeds or types of dog, compared to only 15% of those who have had little or no experience with dogs. Less than one in 10 of respondents who had not owned a dog disagreed with the statement that breed specific legislation is necessary for protecting the public, with many holding the view that if a dog appears to be dangerous, it is more likely to show aggressive tendencies than its small and fluffy counterparts.
The research is a confirmation of what many of us dog lovers already know; that media and the Government play a major part in shaping the views of those who have little prior knowledge of dogs and what influences their behaviour. The research team concluded that breed specific legislation creates a false sense of security amongst the public, who may believe that dogs not deemed ‘dangerous’ by law and of a different shape to banned types are ‘safe’ and always good-natured. Breed specific legislation teaches the public that a dog’s temperament can be predicted based on its appearance, which of course is not possible. To quote the Kennel Club, “this is why dogs placed on the Index of Exempted Dogs have never been proven to be dangerous and why dogs of a breed or type other than those expressly prohibited have been involved in dog attacks.”
Myths such as the ‘lock jaw’ phenomenon also support the researchers’ opinion that breed specific legislation leads to negative stereotypes, forming an image of a vicious, crazed animal with locking jaws in the minds of the public. Whist it is true that Pit Bull Terriers do indeed have a strong bite capacity, the structure of their jaw is no different to that of any other dog breed. An experiment shown on National Geographic channel demonstrated that the Pit Bull Terrier has an average bite force of 235 pounds, compared to 238 pounds from a German Shepherd and a Rottweiler’s 328 pounds. A YouTube clip of this experiment can be seen here.
A ‘false sense of security’ has recently been talked about with regards to the popular term ‘nanny dog’, widely used amongst Staffie owners with good intentions of dispelling myths and forming positive opinions about the breed. It has been suggested that by telling everyone about the loving nature of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, owners and breed enthusiasts are inadvertently sending out the message that it is perfectly safe to leave a dog alone with a child. Whilst I’m sure that this was not the message that owners had in mind, a lack of knowledge together with misunderstandings fuelled by such messages is potentially an accident waiting to happen, through no fault of the dog. No dog, regardless of breed, size, age or temperament, should ever be left alone with a child – even a ‘nanny dog’.
The presence of breed specific legislation lays the foundation for the myths and negative stereotypes surrounding bull-breeds, which encourages the ‘wrong’ type of person to own a bull-breed, increasing the likelihood of dog attack incidents through the concept of ‘status dogs’, which, together with a general lack of knowledge and public misunderstanding, in turn supports the argument for breed specific legislation. It is a vicious circle that can only be broken with an overhaul of legislation and introduction of laws that place the blame solely on those responsible for their dog’s actions.
Read the University of Lincoln’s article here.
For more information on the Kennel Club’s views on dangerous dog legislation, see their campaign briefing here.